Stanhopea maculosa

Knowles & Westcott 1839

Native to Mexico (endemic).

Edited 11 May 2007
© Nina Rach

Photo needed

Stanhopea maculosa Knowles & Westcott 1839

Flowers are cream to orange with purple blotches, spots, and stipples throughout. 2-3 are borne on a short pendent inflorescence. Distinctive hypochile. Very broad, winged column. Petals are short, narrow, and relexed. Intensely sweet fragrance.

George Beauchamp Knowles (1820-1852) and Frederic Westcott (?-1861) published the type description and plate in the London publication, Floral Cabinet, and Magazine of Exotic Botany.

Closely related to Stanhopea hernandezii and Stanhopea martiana.

Endemic to the Pacific coast of Mexico, in the Sierra Madre Occidental, the Volcanic Belt, and the Sierra Madre del Sur, in Sonora, Sinaloa, Durango, Nayarit, Jalisco, Colima, Michoacan, and Guerrero. Known locally as "Torito" ("bull").



AOS awards:

Printed References:

___ (2002?) "Dept. of Stanhopeinae: Stanhopea embreii & Stanhopea maculosa," in: Oasis-- The Journal 2(2): pp. __.

___ (May-June 1985) "??" Orchid Digest, 49(3): p. 101, color photo.

Calaway H. Dodson (Feb. 1963) "The Mexican Stanhopeas" in: Bull, Amer. Orchid Society 32(2): 115-129. [Stanhopea devoniensis, fregeana, intermedia, martiana, oculata, saccata, tigrina, wardii]

Barney Greer (1998) The Astonishing Stanhopeas - The Upside-down Orchids. p. 36, color photo.

Rudolf Jenny (1995) "The Gongorinae: 7. Stanhopea: part 15," in: Caesiana no. 5, pp. 7-28. [Stanhopea maculosa, S. napoensis, S. novogaliciana, S. opsinae, S. posadae]

Rudolf Jenny and R. Gonzalez Tamayo (1997) "The Gongorinae: 7. Stanhopea: part 17," in: Caesiana no. 9, pp. 21-40. [Stanhopea maculosa from Mexico, S. saccata Bateman, S. radiosa Lemaire, and a new species, Stanhopea pseudoradiosa Jenny & Gonzalez-Tamayo]

George C. Kennedy (1974) "_____," in: Orchid Digest 38(__): 89.

George C. Kennedy (Sept.-Oct. 1975) "The Stanhopeas of Mexico," in: Orchid Digest 39(5): 178. [includes: Stanhopea graveolens, hernandezii, maculosa, martiana, oculata, radiosa, saccata, tigrina]

George Beauchamp Knowles and Frederic Westcott (1839 or 1840) in: Floral Cabinet, and Magazine of Exotic Botany iii. p. 119. plate 121, London. [type publication]

J.M. Lapiner (1979) Orquideas Michoacanas. pg. 25, as Stanhopea devoniensis

Rogers McVaugh (28 June 1985) Flora Novo-Galiciana, A Descriptive Account of the Vascular Plants of Western Mexico, Vol. 16: Orchidaceae. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, pp. 343-344. [Stanhopea intermedia, maculosa, martiana, radiosa, plus discussion of doubtful species such as: Stanhopea oculata, saccata]

M. Soto Arenas (2002) "Stanhopea maculosa," in: Orchids of Mexico Parts 2-3, Icones Orchidacearum 5-6, Plate 675.

William Mark Whitten and N.H. Williams (1992) "Floral fragrances of Stanhopea (Orchidaceae)," in: Lindleyana 7: 130-153. [Stanhopea oculata, dodsoniana]

possibly included in:
Norris H. Williams and W. Mark Whitten (Aug. 1999) "Molecular phylogeny and floral fragrances of male euglossine bee-pollinated orchids: A study of Stanhopea (Orchidaceae)," in: Plant Species Biology 14(2):129-136.

Web References:

"A list of the vascular plants of the Río Mayo, Chihuahua and Sonora, the Río Cuchujaqui, Sonora, parts of surrounding drainages and contiguous southernmost Sonora." - includes Stanhopea maculosa and Stanhopea radiosa. Found at

International Plant Names Index [IPNI],

Harvard University Herbarium (as of 13 April 2003), Index of Botanical Specimens. URL: [12 specimens listed, representing 5 stanhopea species: Stanhopea costaricensis, gibbosa, haselowiana, maculosa, marshii]

Index Kewensis

R.J. Hartley's " Stanhopea species in Index Kewensis".

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