Stanhopea bucephalus


Native to Mexico

Proper name: Stanhopea occulata (Lodd.) Lindl.

Edited 29 June 2007

lithograph from Curtis

Originally published in Gen. et Sp. Orch. 157; reclassified by Lodd. as Stanhopea oculata.

Two other forms have been published:
(1) Stanhopea bucephalus forma jenischiana
(Kramer ex Rchb.f.) Regel Gartenflora 23: 35. 1874.
(2) Stanhopea bucephalus forma roezlii
Regel Gartenflora 23: 35, tab. 785. 1874.

At left is an image of a hand-colored lithograph by N. Fitch, published as Stanhopea bucephalus in William Curtis' "Botanical Magazine" in the 19th century.

Note the separate, detailed drawing of the column and lip in the lower right-hand corner.

Standley (1928) wrote: "Stanhopea bucephalus Lindl. is the only species occurring in Panama. In this plant the lip consists of three parts, the unclawed basal part which is an obovate sac, the middle portion consisting of a pair of linear incurved horns, and the terminal part which is a flat, elliptic-ovate or rounded, acute plate. This species grows in Mexico and Panama. In Panama it has been found on McComber Hill, on hills east of Panama City, near San Juan, and on the Juan Grande Range."

In 1961, Dodson and Frymire wrote that the euglossine bee species Eulaema bomboides was observed pollinating Stanhopea bucephalus in Ecuador.

One hybrid has been cited by R.J. Hartley naming Stanhopea bucephalus as a parent: Stanhopea Bucmar = bucephalus x martiana). The Royal Horticultural Society does not recognize Stanhopea bucephalus as a valid species name, however. The proper name for this hybrid is Stanhopea Uli Paterny, registered with the RHS in 1992 (oculata x martiana).


Calaway H. Dodson and G.P. Frymire (May 1961) "Preliminary Studies in the genus Stanhopea (Orchidaceae)," in: Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 48(2): 137-172. [bucephalus, deltoidea, tricornis]

G.C.K. Dunsterville and Leslie A. Garay (1965) Orchids of Venezeula, Volume 3. London: Andre Deutsch Limited. [p.296: Stanhopea bucephalus, cymbiformis, guttata, guttulata, Lindleyi, minor, oculata, ornatissima, Purpussi]

Myron Kimnach (Sept. 1978) "The Cultivation of Stanhopea and Its Allies," in: AOS Bulletin 47(9): 784-794. [Stanhopea bucephalus, costaricensis, connata, eburnea, frymirei, gibbosa, graveolens, infracta, inodora, insignis, oculata, rodigasiana, tigrina, wardii]

John Lindley (18__) in: Gen. et Sp. Orch. p. 157.

Eduard August von Regel (1874) "Stanhopea bucephalus forma roezlii," in: Gartenflora 23: 35, tab. 785.

Miguel Angel Soto Arenas (2003) "Diversidad de orquideas en la region El Momon-Margaritas-Montebello [Chiapas]," Final report of CONABIO Project R225, from Nov. 30, 1998 to Sept. 30, 2001. [Acineta barkeri; Gongora galeata, leucochila, truncata; Stanhopea bucephalus, graveolens, inodora, saccata, whittenii]

Paul C. Standley (1928) Flora of the Panama Canal Zone. Contributions from the U.S. National Herbarium, Vol. 27. Washington: Smithsonian Institution. [36. Stanhopea, p. 143 - only Stan. bucephalus]

International Plant Names Index, [IPNI].

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