Stanhopea frymirei

Dodson 1975

Native to Ecuador.

Edited 10 May 2007
© Nina Rach


Originally published in: Selbyana 1(2): 126-128, fig. 5A. 1975.

Calaway Dodson collected the original plant from which this species was described, in Ecuador in 1961, and then waited 14 years to describe it! [Specimen 2452 at Selby Herbaium, Sarasota, FL].

This stanhopea is scented of cinnamon and bergamot (the flavoring in Earl Grey and Lady Grey black teas). It is pollinated by the Eulaema bomboides euglossine bee, as is Stanhopea jenischiana (Whitten & Williams).

Stanhopea frymirei is closely allied to Stanhopea embreei and to Stanhopea jenischiana (known in cultivation as S. bucephalus).

Stanhopea frymirei is endemic to Ecuador, found at low elevations, 0-650 m, on the western slopes of the Andes. According to Jenny (2003), the column is 5-5.2 cm long.

Stanhopea embreei is endemic to Ecuador, found at medium altitudes on the wetern slopes of the Andes in Bolivar and Canar Departments. According to Jenny (2003), the column is 5-5.5 cm long, and the hypochile is slightly narrower than the epichile.

Stanhopea jenischiana is found predominantly in Colombia's Cauca Valley, although there is one population known in southern Ecuador, near Pinas, at 800-1,500 m in a very wet area. The plants there grow both epiphytically and terrestrially. There is no known overlapping habitat, no known natural hybrids with Stanhopea jenischiana.

According to Jenny (2003), the column of Stanhopea jenischiana is 4-4.2 cm long, shorter than the others. It has variable coloration. The hypochile is distinctly narrower than the epichile, and there is a sharp edge at the transition between the hypochile and mesochile.

About G.P. Frymire

This stanhopea is named for G.P. Frymire, with whom Dodson published papers (and collected herpetology specimens).

George Carr writes: "Beginning in 1959, Calaway H. Dodson and G.P. Frymire took up where Allen had left off in studies of the orchids of tropical America and their pollinators. Dodson and Frymire began their work in Ecuador, whereas Allen had done most of his work in Panama and Costa Rica (Dodson & Frymire 1961, Dodson 1962b). They quickly noted the key role that fragrance played in attracting pollinators. Since Cycnoches is one of the most fragrant of the genera, along with the other members of the Catasetinae, they did a lot of work with Cycnoches species."

G.P. Frymire has several other orchid species named in his honor:
Dipterostele frymirei (Dodson) Garay & G.A.Romero
Mormodes frymirei C.H. Dodson
Scelochilus frymirei C.H. Dodson
Stellilabium frymirei C.H. Dodson
Telipogon frymirei C.H. Dodson

Some of G.P. Frymire's publications include:
C.H. Dodson and G.P. Frymire (1958) "Oncidium nubigenum," in: Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 27(11):748-752.

C.H. Dodson and G. P. Frymire (1959) "Cycnoches lehmannii," in: A.O.S. Bulletin 28(3): 181-185.

C.H. Dodson and G.P. Frymire (1961a) "Preliminary studies in the genus Stanhopea (Orchidaceae)," in: Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 48: 137-172.
"- an attempt to bring together the knowledge of Taxonomy, Morphology, Phylogeny and Pollination..." in a poorly understood genus. A penetrating article, according to Dr. Joseph Arditti, writing in 1969.

C.H. Dodson and G.P. Frymire (1961b) "Natural pollination of orchids," in: Mo. Bot. Gard. Bull. 49(9): 133-152.
"The first significant attempt to summarize new information since Darwin."

AOS awards:

Stanhopea frymirei 'Marie Selby' AM/AOS 8- pts, CCM/AOS
Exhibitor: Marie Selby Botanic Gardens, Sarasota, FL. Published in Awards Quarterly 34(1): 69, with photo.

Stanhopea frymirei 'Cal Dodson' CBM/AOS 87 pts
Awarded on 7/09/77 in Atlanta, GA . Exhibitor: F. L. Stevenson, Chamblee, GA. Published in AQ.

Printed References:

Arcadio Arosema G., Roberto Estrada G., Cecilia De Jurado, Max Konanz M. (1988) Orchids From the Coast of Ecuador. Guayaquil: Asociacion Ecuatoriana de Orquideologia, 129p., 171 color photos. [077. Gongora aceras; 078. Gongora grossa; 091. Macradenia brassavolae; 131. Polycycnis morganii; 146. Sievekingia reichenbachiana; 147. Sievekingia rhonhofae; 154-155 Stan. florida; 156. Stan annulata; 157. Stan embreei; 158. Stan. frymirei; 159. Stan. jenishiana [ibid.]; 160. Stan. tricornis]

Calaway H. Dodson (1980) "Stanhopea frymirei," in: Icones Plantarum Tropicarum, description; plate 320illustration by B. Culbert & L. Maurre.

Calaway H. Dodson (1975) "____," in: Selbyana 1(2): 126-128, fig. 5A.

Rudolf Jenny (2003) "The Genus Stanhopea: 1th Part - S. anfracta to S. napoensis," in: Caesiana 21, 145p.

Myron Kimnach (Sept. 1978) "The Cultivation of Stanhopea and Its Allies," in: AOS Bull. 47(9): 784-794. [Stan. bucephalus, costaricensis, connata, eburnea, frymirei, gibbosa, graveolens, infracta, inodora, insignis, oculata, rodigasiana, tigrina, wardii]

Linda Kraus (April 1984) "The Culture of Stanhopeas -- Confessions of a Requited Lover," in: AOS Bull. 53(4): 358-366. [Stan. connata, costaricensis, eburnea, ecornuta, frymirei, grandiflora, graveolens, hernandezii, oculata, rodigasiana, saccata, wardii; S. Assidensis, S. Memoria Paul Allen]

W. Mark Whitten and Norris H. Williams (1992) "Floral fragrances of Stanhopea (Orchidaceae)," in: Lindleyana 7:130-153.

Web References:

International Plant Names Index [IPNI],

Photo of Stanhopea frymirei at Akerne Orchids website, Belgium

Photo from Jay Phal's

Photo included on Dale's Photo CD, Vol. 1.

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